coronavirus

Your Guide to the COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic

What we know about the COVID-19 outbreak, declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11

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The new coronavirus first reported in the Chinese city of Wuhan in December 2019 has infected more than 657,600 people and caused nearly 30,500 deaths worldwide. In the U.S., deaths from the pandemic have now topped 1,900. Those numbers continue to rise. The number of people who recovered from the virus surpassed 139,000.

COVID-19, the illness caused by the virus, has killed thousands, sent millions more into quarantine and self-isolation and wreaked havoc on the world's economy. The World Health Organization officially declared the crisis a pandemic on March 11 with President Donald Trump declaring a national emergency two days later.

Countries battling the outbreak have shuttered restaurants, schools and limited public gatherings to enforce social distancing. The U.S. has restricted border crossings with both Mexico and Canada. Many states, including New York, Illinois and California, have ordered residents to stay home with few exceptions.

On March 16, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued new guidelines to avoid unnecessary exposure, urging Americans to limit social gatherings to no more than 10 people, continue their education at home, avoid discretionary travel and avoid bars, restaurants and food courts.

How Long Will Coronavirus Last?

Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said on March 20 that Americans will most likely have to continue staying at home and practicing social distancing for “at least several weeks."

“If you look at the trajectory of the curves of outbreaks and other areas, at least going to be several weeks,” Fauci said in an interview with Savannah Guthrie on the “TODAY” show.

For the latest information, check out the CDC's website, as well as the World Health Organization's site. State and city governments are also sharing phone numbers for local hotlines and other resources. Follow all our coronavirus coverage here.

Coronavirus Symptoms

What to know if you think you or someone close to you might be infected: Based on the reported cases of the virus, the CDC has narrowed the symptoms to fever, cough and shortness of breath. Symptoms of the virus appear 2-14 days after exposure. The average incubation time, though, is five days, and 97.5% of people infected with the virus will show symptoms within 12 days, according to a recent study.

Call your doctor for advice if you think you've developed COVID-19 symptoms.

How to Get a Coronavirus Test

If you think you may have the coronavirus and want to get tested, figuring out where to go can be confusing and challenging. The availability of coronavirus tests in the United States is changing rapidly and depends on where you live. NBC News reached out to the health departments for all 50 states, the District of Columbia and the five U.S. territories for information on how they are handling testing and what recommendations they have for people seeking tests.

Is There a Coronavirus Vaccine?

Scientists worldwide are racing to develop tests, treatments and vaccines to combat the COVID-19 disease.

Near term, tests are the priority, CNBC reported. Beyond testing, regulators are trying to get treatments approved as quickly and safely as possible to serve as a bridge to a vaccine, which is likely to take 12 months, according to the U.S. FDA Commissioner Stephen Hahn.  

Health care experts broadly agree that a treatment is likely to come before a vaccine. “If a good treatment emerges, whatever it is, we expect regulators to prioritize expeditious review,” Laura Sutcliffe, a UBS health-care analyst said in a research note. 

How Is the Coronavirus Spread?

The virus that causes COVID-19 has been spreading easily and sustainably in the community in affected areas, according to the CDC.

Coronavirus Spreading:

  • Person to Person: People who are in close contact (within 6 feet) of each other. When the infected person coughs or sneezes, they release respiratory droplets that can land in the mouths or noses of the people nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.
  • Asymptomatic: Thus far people are thought to be contagious when they are the sickest (most symptomatic), but it is possible to spread the virus before symptoms occur. There have been reports of this occurring with the coronavirus, but it is not the main way the virus is spread.
  • Infected Surfaces and Objects: A person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose and eyes, though this is not the main way the virus is spread, according to the CDC. Learn more about how long the virus lasts on different surfaces here.
  • Community Spread: People have been infected with the virus in the area, including people who are not sure how or where they became infected.

No Evidence That It Spreads From Food or Packages: The CDC says "there is likely very low risk of spread from food products or packaging," but say it is always important to wash hands with soap and water before and after handling for general food safety.

Think You Have the Coronavirus?

Stay at Home Unless Medical Care Is Needed: Those with a mild form of the virus are able to isolate at home during the illness. They should restrict all outdoor activities except for medical care. This includes avoiding public areas or going to work or school. Refrain from using public transportation, ride-sharing services or taxis, the CDC says.

Call Ahead Before Visiting a Doctor: If you have a medical appointment, call the healthcare provider and tell them that you have or are experiencing symptoms of COVID-19. This will help the health care provider’s office take steps to keep other people from getting infected or exposed.

Vice President Mike Pence, who is leading the president's coronavirus task force, said testing for the virus would be covered by private and government health insurance. Government health care plans like Medicare, Medicaid and Affordable Care Act plans cover the tests, as well as major insurers. Those with employer-provided health insurance should check their plan co-pays and deductibles may apply.

How to prevent spreading the coronavirus if you're infected

Wash Your Hands: One of the best ways to prevent spread of the virus is washing your hands with soap and water. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends first washing with warm or cold water and then lathering soap for 20 seconds to get it on the backs of hands, between fingers and under finger nails before rinsing off. If soap and water are not available, clean hands with an alcohol-based (at least 60% alcohol) hand sanitizer. Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth with unwashed hands.

With flu season well upon us, and concerns over the coronavirus growing, NBC 5’s Lauren Petty visited Northwestern Hospital and talked to Dr. Igor Koralnik. Koralnik shows us the right way to get your hands clean in 60 seconds.

You should wash your phone, too. Here’s how:

Properly sanitizing your phone can help protect against illness, including coronavirus.

Cover Your Coughs and Sneezes: Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw used tissues in a lined trash can. Immediately wash your hands with soap and water.

How to Self-Quarantine:

  • Stay away from other people in the home as much as possible. Stay in a specific room and, if available, a separate bathroom. Avoid sharing drinking glasses, cups, eating utensils, towels or bedding with other people in your home. After using these items, they should be washed thoroughly with soap and water.
  • Restrict contact with all other pets and animals while you have the virus. There have not been confirmed reports of pets or animals becoming sick with the coronavirus, but it is still recommended that people with COVID-19 limit contact with other animals until more information is known of the virus. If caring for a pet while you have the virus, wash your hands before and after all interactions and wear a face mask.

When and How to Wear Gloves: Gloves are not a substitute for hand hygiene. If gloves are required to complete a task, wash hands before and after donning gloves. And don't just toss the gloves once you're done; follow the CDC’s guidelines on proper glove disposal.

Clean all surfaces every day: Surfaces like counters, tabletops, doorknobs, bathrooms fixture, toilets, phone keyboards, tablets and bedside tables should be cleaned daily and thoroughly with a household cleaning spray or wipe. Clean any surfaces with bodily fluids like blood or stool.

Monitor symptoms: Seek medical care if the illness is worsening. People who are actively monitored or are self-monitoring should follow instructions provided by health professionals.

Is COVID-19 deadlier for men than women?

According to initial studies out of China and Italy, fatality rates were higher for infected men than infected women. Experts have suggested a number of factors that may help explain the disparity, including immune system differences between men and women, the protective effect of estrogen, lifestyle habits and the tendency for men to have more risk factors. Learn more here.

Should I take ibuprofen?

While worries that taking ibuprofen might worsen the coronavirus have gained traction online, health experts say there is currently no credible scientific evidence to substantiate the concern.

The World Health Organization told NBC News it's "gathering evidence" on the topic, but "after a rapid review of the literature, is not aware of published clinical or population-based data on this topic."

When is it OK to leave isolation?

How long someone is sick with COVID-19 can vary, so decisions on when to release someone from isolation are made on a case-by-case basis, according to the CDC. Still, these requirements must be met: the person is fever-free without having taken medicine and no longer shows any other symptoms, like a cough. If you are isolating at home, talk to your healthcare provider before ending precautions.

Will I get a coronavirus relief payment from the government?

The U.S. on Friday passed a $2.2 trillion rescue package, tossing a life preserver to a national economy and health care system left flailing by the pandemic.

The stimulus payments will be determined by a person's 2019 federal income tax filing. If you have not yet filed your 2019 taxes, your 2018 return will be used. The payments will be made by either direct deposit or check. Direct deposits could come within two weeks and checks in four weeks after the bill is signed into law. Use this calculator to estimate how much you're entitled to under the new legislation.

Everyone is wondering how much they will get from the federal government when the $2 trillion coronavirus stimulus bill is complete. Here's a basic guideline of what you can expect using items we found while stuck home with our kids.

TRAVEL AND TRANSPORTATION: How to Get Around, or Not, Amid the Coronavirus Outbreak

What to know if you think the outbreak will affect your upcoming air travel plans: With the evolving nature of the outbreak, some airlines have increased their flight cancellations and have been waiving fees for those who previously booked flights to some countries.

For the most up-to-date air travel information and guidelines, see our running list of airlines that have put various flight cancellations and fee-waiving policies into effect since the disease outbreak on Jan. 20, when the first confirmed cases occurred outside of mainland China.

And U.S. airlines in turn are seeking government assistance of more than $50 billion, including a mix of direct aid and loan guarantees, as the industry reels from the coronavirus outbreak.

What to know if you would love to avoid public transit, but you don’t have a car and you can’t work from home: Public officials are encouraging people to avoid using public transit whenever possible. For those who rely exclusively on public transit to get around, officials recommend avoiding crowded buses and train cars, even if it means waiting longer for a less-crowded commute.

Working from home

What to know if you have been told to work from home until further notice: Working from home is different. It may take you longer to do things, and it may be more difficult to communicate with colleagues. It’s easy to get frustrated, but these tips can help you to stay on task and in touch with your colleagues when you're confined to isolation.

Telecommuting can also raise new privacy and cybersecurity issues, especially for those used to working in-office with internal access to secure company networks. Here are some things to keep in mind when setting up your temporary home office and logging on.

And if you find yourself just feeling stuck while at home, there are ways to make the best of a bad situation, according to “Shark Tank” investor Daymond John.

“You have to make sure that you take that time to switch things up, adjust and get ready for this change,” he said.

The American Heart Association provided some tips to stay healthy while social distancing at home during the coronavirus pandemic.

If you're looking for a work-from-home job: For many who are out of a job, remote work is a tempting solution, not only during social distancing but as a full-time long-term job. Here's who is hiring people right now.

CANCEL CULTURE: Major Event Cancellations and Closures

Here's a running list of high-profile concerts, sports, and tourist attractions that have been closed, canceled or rescheduled to minimize the virus' spread: Festivals, Concerts and Other Events Canceled or Postponed Due to Coronavirus Fears. Major businesses and corporations have also shuttered because of the virus.

With restaurants and stores shuttering across the United States, some companies have decided to offer discounts and deals to alleviate the closures’ financial, emotional and technological costs on consumers, institutions and other businesses. Here is a list of deals, discounts and freebies companies are offering amid the pandemic.

Social Distancing

An increasing number of U.S. states have ordered "non-essential businesses" to close or restrict their services in order to limit the coronavirus' spread by enforcing social distancing.

“Any time you increase your exposure to public areas, you increase your risks,” Charles P. Gerba, a professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of Arizona, told TODAY Food.

Social distancing will save lives, but it can also start to feel pretty isolating. Here are five ways to stay social while social distancing:

Social distancing will save lives, but it can also start to feel pretty isolating. Author and social connection expert Susan McPherson gives her top five tips for staying connected to your community from home.

For the latest information, check out the CDC's website, as well as the World Health Organization's site. State and city governments are also sharing phone numbers for local hotlines and other resources. Follow all our coronavirus coverage here.

Danielle Abreu, Sevanny Campos and other staff contributed to this report.

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